Sore throat can be painful and at the same rough. It feels so hard to swallow your own saliva. Taking that delicious meal becomes work. You want to cough, and the only thing you can think about is making that lump in the back of your throat go away.
In order to ease the pain, one must first understand the causes of the sore throat in the first place. Several researches have shown that dry air, smoking, acid reflux, viral infections like the flu or common cold, and bacterial infections like strep can all lead to a sore throat.
Dr Chester Griffiths, an otolaryngologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California, said a viral infection usually comes with other symptoms, like muscle aches and fatigue, along with your sore throat.
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She also said with a bacterial infection, on the other hand, the pain is usually more focused on your throat and the soreness tends to be pretty severe. “You may also have intense pain when you swallow, along with a high fever”.
Exposure to smoke, breathing in dry air, and having acid reflux tends to feel “very different” from an infection, says Jason Abramowitz, MD, an ear, nose, and throat specialist at ENT and Allergy Associates. “Usually patients do not feel as sick overall [and] the pain is also usually not as severe,” he says.
The good news: Sipping warm tea and sucking on cough drops or zinc lozenges can usually soothe the throat irritation and inflammation that are causing your agony, says Brett Comer, MD, a head and neck surgeon at the University Of Kentucky College Of Medicine.
Still, some of your favourite home remedies may just be masking the pain—not actually resolving it. If you really want to get rid of a sore throat, reach for these best OTC cures next time you’re feeling achy.
1. Gargle with warm salt water
Salt water is a great home remedy for sore throat, as it can reduce swelling and calm inflammation and irritation. It may also help draw infections or irritants to the surface of your throat, where your body is better able to deal with them. Dissolve 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon of salt in eight ounces of warm water and gargle every hour or two, advises Mia Finkelston, MD, a Maryland-based family physician who also treats patients via LiveHealth Online. While you may have heard that gargling with apple cider vinegar has a similar effect, you should probably steer clear of this tactic for now, says Dr. Comer. Children should not try this.
2. Fight dry air with a humidifier.
Dry air can irritate a sore throat, prolonging your recovery time. Taking a steamy shower or using a humidifier can bring moisture back into the air, thus relieving any discomfort. “The mucus membranes of the nose and throat love moisture,” Dr. Abramowitz says. “Steam provides moisture and warmth, which helps the vocal cords calm down and decrease in swelling.” The moisture in your nose can also help clear out mucus and gunk, which can be part of the problem, he adds.
Just be sure to clean your humidifier before turning it on. Left neglected, a humidifier’s water tank can breed bacteria and fungi, which then get pumped into the air, according to a U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSP) safety alert. While this may not make your throat feel any worse, it could cause flu=like symptoms or exacerbate allergies or asthma.
3. Take extreme-cold liquids.
Those first few swallows may not be pleasant. But just as icing a sprained ankle can dull the pain and prevent swelling, drinking icy liquids can both numb your throat and calm some of the inflammation that’s causing you pain, Dr. Finkelston says.
4. Skip acidic foods.
Acid reflux—which occurs when acids produced by your stomach make their way into the throat—is a common cause of a sore throat, Dr. Comer says. That means anything you do to stoke acid reflux could prolong or worsen a sore throat. For that reason, Dr. Comer recommends avoiding soda, fried foods, and citrus fruits like oranges and lemons. Also, skip food altogether for an hour before bed. Eating before you lie down can promote reflux and heartburn.
5. Swallow antacids.
If you think acid reflux is to blame for your sore throat, taking antacids or other reflux meds could help relieve pain, Dr. Finkelston says. As a first-line treatment, try an over-the-counter antacid such as Tums or Mylanta.
6. Soothe your throat with honey.
There’s a reason honey is a popular ingredient in cough medicine and teas: It has antibacterial properties, coats your throat to reduce irritation, and adds much needed sweetness to your cup. Simply add a tablespoon to warm water or tea and sip away until you feel your symptoms ease up. Just keep this in mind if you have acid reflux: Honey can be acidic “so it may not be ideal for throats dealing with bad acid reflux,” Dr. Abramowitz says.
7. Take a pain reliever.
Ibuprofen can help put a stop to the coughing and throat-clearing that prevents your sore throat from healing, Dr. Finkelston says. Just be sure to take your ibuprofen with food, and follow the dosing instructions on the label.
8. Give your voice a rest.
If you developed a sore throat after yelling and cheering at a concert or sporting event, you likely strained your vocal cords. The best treatment for any overworked muscle is rest. “It’s similar to a sprained ankle—walking on it hurts,” Dr. Griffiths says. “Moving your sore throat a lot when you speak hurts, too.”
That doesn’t mean you should whisper, though. This actually strains your voice more than speaking. Instead, try talking at a lower volume than usual until the hoarseness and soreness subside.
9. Change your toothbrush.
Believe it or not, your toothbrush may be perpetuating—or even causing—your sore throat. Bacteria collect on the bristles, and any injury to the gums during brushing injects these germs into your system. As soon as you start feeling ill, throw away your toothbrush. Often that’s enough to stop the illness in its tracks. “Changing your toothbrush is often recommended for patients with bacterial throat infections to eliminate the spread of infection,” Dr. Abramowitz says.
If you do get sick, replace your brush again when you start to feel better and when you feel completely well. That keeps you from reinfecting yourself.
10. Try a nasal decongestant.
If part of the reason you’re breathing through your mouth is because your nose is clogged, use an over-the-counter medicated decongestant nasal spray or drops to open up airways, such as Afrin or Vicks. “Nasal decongestants work well at eliminating congestion in your nose and drying mucus out,” Dr. Abramowitz says. “This can help you feel better and also decrease postnasal drip.” But you should limit use to a day or two.
11. Alleviate your allergies.
Airborne allergies, such as pollen, indoor molds, or dust mites, can cause chronic low-grade throat inflammation. “Allergies are a very common cause of postnasal drip which can lead to throat pain,” Dr. Abramowitz says. To start, try taking a non-drowsy over-the-counter allergy medication containing cetirizine hydrochloride, such as Zyrtec or Claritin . Even if that seems to help, “it’s a good idea to get your allergies checked so you know what you’re dealing with,” Dr. Abramowitz says.
12. Take a hot shower.
Steam helps humidify your airways, says Dr. Griffiths. “Any humidification can relieve symptoms,” he says. The tissues in your throat produce mucus under normal circumstances and, when they’re swollen, they can get dry and scratchy, he explains. Humidity can help add some moisture back into the area, soothing it in the process.
13. Take time to rest.
If you’re super stressed and worn out, your body’s immune system will have a harder time with the recovery process—so get some rest! Time in bed or away from life’s usual stressors—like work, taking care of the kids, and cleaning up the house—can help recharge your immune system, Dr. Finkelston says. Aim for at least 7 to 9 hours of sleep per night.
14. Take herbal teas.
Turmeric is the trendy spice you should definitely be adding to your diet. While some of its benefits—including it’s potential to prevent cancer or brain diseases—require more study, its anti-inflammatory powers are well-established and may help get rid of your sore throat, Dr. Finkelston says. Add a few dashes to your tea or salt-water gargle.
You also try other teas if you prefer another flavor. “Many herbal teas have a positive immune effect and helps our body fight infection,” Dr. Abramowitz says. He recommends choosing a tea with Echinacea—it’s been shown to help boost your immune system).
15. Lift your head when you sleep.
This helps in a few ways. When you lay flat on your back, it increases pressure on your neck and can exacerbate symptoms in your throat, Dr. Griffiths says. “Propping yourself up helps relieve the pressure and can make you feel better,” he says. If you’re struggling with acid reflux, elevating your head also can work with gravity to help keep your stomach acids where they belong—in your stomach.
Strep throat is an extremely painful bacterial infection that may come on suddenly. Fortunately, the vast majority of bacterial infections, including strep, generally respond well to one course of an appropriate antibiotic. Because sore throats can have so many causes, some symptoms need to be evaluated by a doctor.